Sabtu, 08 Desember 2012
Definition of the hardware or in the Indonesian language it is also called by the name of "hardware" is one component of a computer that the nature of his instrument can be seen and touched, directly or in the form of real, which serves to support the computerization process.
Hardware can work based on pre-defined commands available to him, or what is also referred to by the term instruction set. With the commands that can be understood by the hardware, the hardware can perform a variety of activities that have been specified by the command.
Physically, the computer consists of multiple components that constitute a system. The system is the components which work together to form a union. If one component is not working, will result in malfunction of the existing processes with good computer. Computer components are included in the category of hardware elements (hardware). Based on the function, the computer hardware is divided into:
1. divice input (input unit)
2. Process device (processing unit)
3. Output device (output unit)
4. Backing Storage (storage unit)
5. Peripherals (additional units)
The basic components of the computer consists of input, process, output and storage. Input device consists of a keyboard and mouse, Process devices are microprocessor (ALU, Internal Communication, Registers and control section), Output device consists of a monitor and a printer, external memory storage consists of hard drives, floppy drives, CD ROM, magnetic tape. Storage internal memory consists of RAM and ROM. While the Peripheral Device component is an additional component or as a component that did not exist or did not exist before. Peripheral Component example: TV Tuner Card, Modem, Capture Card.
1. Input Unit (Input Device)
This unit serves as a medium to incorporate data from outside into a memory and a processor for processing in order to produce the required information. Input devices or input units commonly used personal computer (PC) is a keyboard and mouse, keyboard and mouse is a unit that connects user (users) and computers. In addition there is a joystick, which is used to play games or play with computers. Then the scanner to take pictures as digital images that can later be manipulated. Touch panel, using the touch of a finger users can access the file. Microphone, to record sounds into the computer.
Data is entered into the computer system can form the input signal and maintenance input. Signal input form data entered into the computer system, while the shape of input maintenance program used to process the data entered. So the input device is also used to enter the data can be used to enter the program. By its nature, the input devices can be classified into two general categories:
• peratalan direct input, the input is entered directly processed by the processing equipment. For example: keyboard, mouse, touch screen, light pen, graphics tablet digitizer, scanner.
• Equipment indirect input, input via a particular media before an input is processed by the processing equipment. For example: the punched card, floppy disk, hard disk.
Units input or input device is composed of several kinds of devices are:
Keyboard input is the most important unit in a data processing computer. The keyboard can function include letters, numbers, special characters, and as a medium for the user (users) to perform other commands are required, such as saving files and opening files. The creation of a computer keyboard from typewriter models were created and patented by Christopher Latham in 1868, and in 1887 the company manufactured and marketed by Remington. The keyboard on the use of now this is kind of QWERTY, in 1973, was unveiled as a keyboard standard keyboard ISO (International Standards Organization). The number keys on the keyboard keys numbered 104. Keyboard now that we know have some kind of port, the serial port, ps2, usb and wireless.
The unit is usually to enter can be found on laptops and notebooks, by using fingertips. Usually, this unit can be used as a substitute for the mouse. In addition to the touchpad is a model similar units enter the pointing stick and trackball.
d. Light Pen
Light pen is an electronic pointer is used to modify and to design an image with a screen (monitor). Light pen has a sensor that can send light signals to a computer which then recorded, where the monitor works by recording the electronic signals every six rows per second.
i. Microphone and Headphone
Input unit serves to record or insert a sound to be stored in computer memory or to listen to the sound. With a microphone, you can record sound or to talk to people we want when chating. Use of this microphone would require other hardware that serves to receive the voice input sound card and speakers to listen to the sound.
j. Graphics Pads
Technology Computer Aided Design (CAD) to make the design of buildings, houses, car engines, and aircraft using the Graphics Pads. Graphics is an input input pads for drawing objects on the monitor. Graphics pads used to have two types. First, using a needle (stylus) that is connected to the pad or pads using low voltage, which in these pads are touch sensitive membrane surface (touch sensitive surface membrane). Low voltage delivered is then translated into the coordinate X - Y. Second, using the touch sensitive pad (touch sensitive pad) without the use of needles. The way it works is to put on the pads of drawing paper, and inscribed in pencil.