Sabtu, 08 Desember 2012


Definition of the hardware or in the Indonesian language it is also called by the name of "hardware" is one component of a computer that the nature of his instrument can be seen and touched, directly or in the form of real, which serves to support the computerization process.

Hardware can work based on pre-defined commands available to him, or what is also referred to by the term instruction set. With the commands that can be understood by the hardware, the hardware can perform a variety of activities that have been specified by the command.

Physically, the computer consists of multiple components that constitute a system. The system is the components which work together to form a union. If one component is not working, will result in malfunction of the existing processes with good computer. Computer components are included in the category of hardware elements (hardware). Based on the function, the computer hardware is divided into:

1. divice input (input unit)

2. Process device (processing unit)

3. Output device (output unit)

4. Backing Storage (storage unit)

5. Peripherals (additional units)

The basic components of the computer consists of input, process, output and storage. Input device consists of a keyboard and mouse, Process devices are microprocessor (ALU, Internal Communication, Registers and control section), Output device consists of a monitor and a printer, external memory storage consists of hard drives, floppy drives, CD ROM, magnetic tape. Storage internal memory consists of RAM and ROM. While the Peripheral Device component is an additional component or as a component that did not exist or did not exist before. Peripheral Component example: TV Tuner Card, Modem, Capture Card.

1. Input Unit (Input Device)

This unit serves as a medium to incorporate data from outside into a memory and a processor for processing in order to produce the required information. Input devices or input units commonly used personal computer (PC) is a keyboard and mouse, keyboard and mouse is a unit that connects user (users) and computers. In addition there is a joystick, which is used to play games or play with computers. Then the scanner to take pictures as digital images that can later be manipulated. Touch panel, using the touch of a finger users can access the file. Microphone, to record sounds into the computer.

Data is entered into the computer system can form the input signal and maintenance input. Signal input form data entered into the computer system, while the shape of input maintenance program used to process the data entered. So the input device is also used to enter the data can be used to enter the program. By its nature, the input devices can be classified into two general categories:

• peratalan direct input, the input is entered directly processed by the processing equipment. For example: keyboard, mouse, touch screen, light pen, graphics tablet digitizer, scanner.

• Equipment indirect input, input via a particular media before an input is processed by the processing equipment. For example: the punched card, floppy disk, hard disk.

Units input or input device is composed of several kinds of devices are:

a. keyboard
Keyboard input is the most important unit in a data processing computer. The keyboard can function include letters, numbers, special characters, and as a medium for the user (users) to perform other commands are required, such as saving files and opening files. The creation of a computer keyboard from typewriter models were created and patented by Christopher Latham in 1868, and in 1887 the company manufactured and marketed by Remington. The keyboard on the use of now this is kind of QWERTY, in 1973, was unveiled as a keyboard standard keyboard ISO (International Standards Organization). The number keys on the keyboard keys numbered 104. Keyboard now that we know have some kind of port, the serial port, ps2, usb and wireless.

Types of Keyboard:

2.) Dvorak

Keyboard is commonly used type QWERTY keyboard, which is similar to the shape keys on a typewriter. The QWERTY keyboard has four parts:

1. typewriter key
2. numeric key
3. function key
4. special function key.

b. mouse
Mouse is one unit of input (input device). The function of this tool is to move the pointer or cursor quickly. In addition, it can be as practical commands and faster than with a keyboard. Mouse began to be used to its full potential since the operating system was based GUI (Graphical User Interface). electrical signals as a mouse input device is generated by a small ball inside the mouse, according to the shifting or movement. Most of the three mouse buttons, generally only two buttons used are the left and right buttons. When the mouse is also equipped with roller button (scroll), where is the button located in the middle. The term referred to the suppression of the left click (Click) where the emphasis is going to function when the mouse is on a designated object, but if the object is not in a designated emphasis will be ignored. There are also other terms that referred to the shift (drag) that pressing the left mouse button without releasing the while being moved. Drag this will cause the object to be moved or copied to other objects and other possibilities. The emphasis of the left mouse button twice quickly and regularly referred to as a double click (double click) while pressing the right mouse button once referred to right-click (right click) Mouse consists of several port is a serial mouse, mouse ps / 2, usb and wireless .

c. touchpad
The unit is usually to enter can be found on laptops and notebooks, by using fingertips. Usually, this unit can be used as a substitute for the mouse. In addition to the touchpad is a model similar units enter the pointing stick and trackball.

d. Light Pen
Light pen is an electronic pointer is used to modify and to design an image with a screen (monitor). Light pen has a sensor that can send light signals to a computer which then recorded, where the monitor works by recording the electronic signals every six rows per second.

e. Joy Stick and Games Paddle
This tool is commonly used in the game (games) computer. Joy Stick is usually a stick, while the paddle games usually square or rectangular plastic fitted with buttons that will govern the motion of an object in a computer.

f. barcode
Barcode included in the input units (input device). The function of this tool is to read a code that squares or thick vertical lines are then translated in the form of numbers. These codes are usually attached to food products, beverages, electronics and books. Right now, every cashier in the supermarket or supermarket in Indonesia to identify the products it sells to the barcode.

g. Scanner
Scanner is a tool that can serve to copy or copy images or text that is then stored in the computer's memory. From memory the next computer, stored in a hard disk or floppy disk. Scanner function is similar to a copy machine, photocopiers difference is that the results can be seen in the paper while the scanner results can be displayed via the monitor in advance so we can make improvements or modifications and can then be stored back in the form of text files or image files. In addition there is also an image scanner to scan commonly used to detect the computer answer sheet. Scanners are used to scan the computer answer sheet SCAN IR is used to LJK (Computer Answer Sheet) in general and the National Examination replicates. Scan this type consists of light called optical sensor that can recognize the type 2B pencil. Scanner on the market is a scanner to copy a picture or photo and usually also equipped with OCR (Optical Character Recognition) to copy or copy objects in text form.

h. Digital camera
The development of technology has been so advanced that the computer is capable of receiving input from the camera. The camera is called the Digital Camera with better picture quality and better than I copy images using the scanner. Sharpness of images from a digital camera is determined by the pixel. The ease and convenience of this tool useful to many activities and jobs. Digital cameras do not require the film as a regular camera. Pictures taken with a digital camera stored in the camera memory in a file, and then can be moved or transferred to a computer. Digital cameras on the market today there are many kinds, ranging from the type of camera to take pictures with the camera static up to recording live or moving images as well as video.

i. Microphone and Headphone
Input unit serves to record or insert a sound to be stored in computer memory or to listen to the sound. With a microphone, you can record sound or to talk to people we want when chating. Use of this microphone would require other hardware that serves to receive the voice input sound card and speakers to listen to the sound.

j. Graphics Pads
Technology Computer Aided Design (CAD) to make the design of buildings, houses, car engines, and aircraft using the Graphics Pads. Graphics is an input input pads for drawing objects on the monitor. Graphics pads used to have two types. First, using a needle (stylus) that is connected to the pad or pads using low voltage, which in these pads are touch sensitive membrane surface (touch sensitive surface membrane). Low voltage delivered is then translated into the coordinate X - Y. Second, using the touch sensitive pad (touch sensitive pad) without the use of needles. The way it works is to put on the pads of drawing paper, and inscribed in pencil.

2. Process device (processing unit)

Power Supplay
Lower supplay provide electricity to various appliances supplay convert CPU power generation and supply of electricity remains to use the computer. Power quality supplay determine the quality of the computer's performance. Power of 300-400 wat distributed power supplay usually enough for a computer that is used for typing or graphics. Meanwhile, the 400-500 watt power needed when using a lot of computer work using peripherals (additional units).

RAM (Random Access Memory) - Memory
RAM stands for Random Access Memory is usually referred to as the short term memory. Memory or RAM is a computer hardware that serves as a temporary data storage. Memory works by storing and supplying the necessary data required by the processor quickly to be processed into information. sense of ram more detail click here

Graphics card (unit output)
Graphics card or video card is an expansion card whose function is to create and display the on-screen displays. This graphics card is comprised of a series of electronics components. Usually embedded in the CPU slot on the main board in the computer. Some cards offer other functions, such as video capture and TV tuner adapter for, describe MPEG-2 and MPEG-4, FireWire, and connects to several screens. Some of the companies that made the famous graphics cards include ATI, Matrox, and NVIDIA.

Processor (processing unit)
Definition Processor, or commonly referred to as the CPU, is the brain of the computer. The processor is a component that executes complex calculations that allow a computer to be used to surf, play a song in iTunes, and run your operating system, meaning the processor <- please click here

Motherboard (processing unit)
Motherboard or mother board is a circuit board where various interconnected electronic components, motherboards usually shortened to mobo said. On this motherboard hardware such as hard drive, ram, processor, graphics card and other hardware connected.
Motherboards are mostly found in the market today are owned PC motherboard that was first created by the foundation in order to conform to the specifications of the IBM PC.

3. Output device (output unit)

computer monitor is one kind of soft-copy device, since the output is in the form of an electronic signal, in this case a picture that appears on the screen. The picture shown is the result of data processing or input information. The monitor has a range of sizes like a television screen. Each brand and size of the monitor has a different resolution levels. This resolution will determine the sharpness of an image that can be displayed on the monitor screen. These types of monitors today are very diverse, ranging from large shapes with convex screen, to form a thin flat (flat).

The printer is a hardware device that is connected to a computer which serves to mold menghasilan either writing or pictures from your computer to paper or similar media. There are three kinds of printer types, the type of metrix Dot Printer, Ink jet printers and laser jet printers. Click here -> printers more detailed understanding

Sepaker here meaning the same as the speaker in general, speakers are transducers that convert electrical signals into audio frequency (noise) components thrilling way shaped membrane.

4. Backing Storage (storage unit)

Hard Drive (HDD)
Hard drive can also be called Hard drive (HDD) or hard drive (HD), Hard Drive is a one of the computer hardware that serves as a secondary storage, in the disk containing magnetic disks. Harddisk first coined by one of the engineers of IBM, he was Reynold Johnson in 1956. Hard drive is also known as the hard disk was first composed of 50 disks measuring 2 feet or 0.6 meters, with a rotation speed reaches 1200 rpm (rotation per minute) with a storage capacity of 4.4 MB.
The data stored in the hard disk will not be lost when it is not given voltage. In a hard drive, there is usually more than one disc to increase data capacity that can be accommodated.
In the development of the hard drive size fiskiknya become increasingly thin and small, but has a capacity of very large data. Harddisk while also not only be installed on the device (internal) but can also be mounted on the outside of the device (external) using a USB cable or other cables that support.

5. Peripherals (additional units)

Examples of computer hardware are included in additional units or peripherals such as

understanding modulator is a circuit that serves modulation process, the process of "laying" data on the frequency of the carrier wave (carrier signal) to signal information / messages to be sent to the recipient via the media (such as cable or air media), usually in the form of a sine wave . In this case, the message signal is called modulation signal. Data from the computer in the form of a digital signal converted to analog signals, click here for a more detailed understanding of modem

sound card
The sound card (Sound Card) is a computer hardware that is used to make a sound and voice recording. At first, the sound card of a computer is only as a complement. But now, the sound card is required on each computer. Judging from the way of installation, sound card divisible by 3:

- Onboard Sound Card, which is directly attached to the sound card on the computer motherboard.
- Sound Card Offboard, the sound card installation in the slot ISA / PCI on the motherboard. On average, now using PCI
- External Soundcard, sound card use is connected to the computer via an external port such as USB or FireWire

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